Present Perfect tense in English
Borderline cases with Present Simple/Continuous and Past Simple.
Present Perfect is a present tense for resultant activity until now. It links the indefinite past to the present. Its form is a finite have + past participle. Negative Present Continuous has have not / haven’t, has not / hasn’t before participle.
|have/has + V3|
|has sb done sth||sb has done sth||sb hasn’t done sth|
The ‘s contraction often confuses beginner students as standing both for has and is. The following participle leaves no doubt about has in Present Perfect.
Present Perfect Meanings
- recent states (relevant up to now)
Rachel has had the dog for 3 years.
He’s taught English in 5 different countries.
Bart has lived there since he was a child.
- fresh actions (with visible results)
She’s just washed her hair.
Look what you’ve done!
I see they’ve knocked down the old cinema in the town center.
- news announcements
The police have finally arrested Peter Duncan.
At least 20 people have been killed in a motorway crash.
- experiences (resulting now)
The Taylors have bought a sailing boat.
I’ve been to Spain but I haven’t been to Italy.
- current period achievements
She has taken 15 pictures today.
Grammatical Present Perfect
Present Perfect sometimes denotes necessary actions in future clauses of time/condition. It emphasizes action completion as a condition.
I’ll give you back your ring when I’ve found it.
I’ll go swimming with you on Monday if I’ve recovered from this cold.
Do you think I could borrow that book after you’ve finished reading it?
ordinal/superlative + Present Perfect
She’s the most honest person I’ve ever met.
It’s 1st time he’s driven a car (= He’s never driven cars before).
That’s the 3rd time he’s phoned her this evening.
Gone to means on one’s way or at a place. Been to means already back from somewhere.
I’ve been to London and now my sister has gone there.
for, since, how long
Hello, I haven’t seen you for ages.
How long have you had this problem?
yet, still, always, just, already, lately/recently, ever, never, before
I’ve seen Jane a lot lately.
Have you had a holiday this year yet?
These letters have just arrived.
so far, today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/season/year/century, in the last few days, the other day
I’ve read 2 books this week.
They’ve been on holiday twice this year.