Adjectives in English
Adjective is a speech part determining nouns. They answer the question What kind? There’re common/descriptive and proper/personality adjectives. Multi-root adjectives are compound. Adjectives make description more specific.
Take a larger slice of the luscious cake.
Semantically adjectives may be qualitative or relative. Qualitative adjectives describe objects directly by denoting their shape, size, color or other general characteristics.
pretty, low, complete, round, good
Some qualitative adjectives are intensifiers. They emphasize object meanings, determined only by absolutely/really:
certain, sure, pure, sheer, real, undoubted, complete, extreme, great, perfect, mere, close, utter, entire, wonderful, terrible, astonished, delicious, amazing, hilarious
Relative adjectives describe objects indirectly, through their relations to other objects.
woolen, wooden, silver
They’re non-gradable – can’t be determined by very, too, enough. Intensifiers are non-gradable too.
weekly, unconscious, dead, legal, medical, empty, full
Syntactically adjectives may be attributive and predicative. Attributive adjectives come before nouns.
intelligent young woman
Some adjectives are historically attributive:
chief, main, only, particular, principal, sole
Predicate adjectives are separated from nouns and come after verbs, especially link verbs (be, get, seem, appear, keep, look, feel, make, smell, sound, taste, become, grow, remain, stay, turn).
Chicken made this way tastes more delicious.
Some adjectives are historically predicative:
ill, poorly, fine, asleep, awake, afraid, alive, alone, content, glad, pleased, sorry, upset, near, far (away)
The adjectives old, heavy, late may mean differently as attributive or predicative.
Kelly’s quite old now.
She’s a really old friend.
Qualitative adjectives may have 3 comparison degrees as positive adjectives, comparative adjectives and superlative adjectives.
Many adjectives have affixes.
Frequent adjective suffixes:
-able/ible (able to be): comfortable
-ful (full of): beautiful
-less (without): careless
-ive (tending to): attractive